How leaf domatia and induced plant resistance affect herbivores, natural enemies and plant performance

Publication Type:Journal Article
Year of Publication:2000
Authors:Agrawal, AA, Karban, R, Colfer, RG
Journal:Oikos
Volume:89
Pagination:70 - 80
Date Published:2000///
ISBN Number:0030-1299
Keywords:BIOLOGICAL-CONTROL, COMMUNITIES, COMMUNITY, CONSEQUENCES, COTTON, DECIDUOUS FOREST, DEFENSE STRATEGY, FLOWER THRIPS, food webs, herbivory, HOST-PLANT, multiple, MUTUALISM, NATURAL ENEMIES, POPULATIONS, predation, PREDATOR, predators, RECRUITMENT, SEEDLINGS, SPIDER-MITES, TROPHIC LEVELS
Abstract:

Predators and plant resistance may act together to control herbivorous arthropod populations or antagonistically, which would reduce the control of pest populations. In a field experiment we enhanced predation by adding simulated leaf domatia to plants. Leaf domatia are small structures that often harbor predaceous arthropods that are potentially beneficial to the plant. We also manipulated host plant duality by inducing resistance with controlled. early season exposure of seedlings to spider mite herbivory. Our manipulations had profound consequences for the natural community of arthropods that inhabited the plants. Leaf domatia had a direct positive effect on abundances of two species of bugs and one species of thrips, all of which are largely predators of herbivores. On leaves with domatia, each of the predators was found inside the domatia two to three times more often than outside the domatia. Eggs of predaceous bugs inside leaf domatia were protected from parasitism compared to eggs outside the domatia. The positive effects of leaf domatia on predator abundances were associated with reduced populations of herbivorous spider mites, aphids, and whiteflies. Plants with experimental leaf domatia showed significantly enhanced reproductive performance. Induced resistance also affected the community of arthropods. Of the abundant predators, all of which also fed on the plant, only minute pirate bugs were negatively affected by induced resistance. Populations of herbivorous spider mites and whiteflies were directly and negatively affected by induction. In contrast, aphid populations were higher on plants with induced resistance compared to uninduced plants. Effects of induced resistance and domatia were additive for each of the predators and for aphids. However, spider mite and whitefly populations were not suppressed Further by employing both induced resistance and domatia compared to each strategy alone. Our manipulations suggest that plant defense strategies can have positive effects on some species and negative effects on others. Negative effects of "resistance trails" on predators and positive effects on some herbivores may reduce the benefits of constitutive expression of resistance traits and may favor inducible defense strategies. Multiple plant strategies such as inducible resistance and morphological traits that aid in the recruitment of predators of herbivores may act together to maximize plant defenses, although they may also be redundant and not act additively

URL:ISI:000086227400008
Scratchpads developed and conceived by (alphabetical): Ed Baker, Katherine Bouton Alice Heaton Dimitris Koureas, Laurence Livermore, Dave Roberts, Simon Rycroft, Ben Scott, Vince Smith